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Combined Authorities in England: An Overview

What Are Combined Authorities?

Purpose of Combined Authorities

The primary purpose of combined authorities is to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of local governance by enabling councils to work together on strategic issues that cross local boundaries. This collaboration allows for more ambitious and coordinated approaches to regional development, infrastructure, and public services. The key objectives of combined authorities include:

  1. Economic Development: By pooling resources and expertise, combined authorities aim to drive economic growth and development in their regions. This includes attracting investment, supporting local businesses, and creating jobs.

  2. Transport: Combined authorities often take on responsibilities for regional transport planning and infrastructure. This can lead to more integrated and efficient public transport systems, better road networks, and improved connectivity between different areas.

  3. Housing and Planning: They play a crucial role in coordinating housing and planning policies to ensure sustainable development and address housing shortages.

  4. Skills and Education: Combined authorities work to improve skills and education in their regions, aligning training programs with the needs of local employers and industries.

  5. Public Services: They can also take on responsibilities for health, social care, and other public services, aiming to deliver these services more effectively and efficiently.

How Combined Authorities Work

Combined authorities are established through a process that involves the voluntary agreement of the local councils within the proposed area. Here’s a step-by-step overview of how they work:

  1. Formation: Local councils within a region must agree to form a combined authority. This involves negotiations and agreements on the scope of the combined authority’s powers and responsibilities. The councils then submit a proposal to the central government for approval.

  2. Governance Structure: Once approved, a combined authority is governed by a board consisting of representatives from the member councils. This board is responsible for making decisions on behalf of the combined authority. In many cases, combined authorities also have a directly elected mayor who provides leadership and accountability.

  3. Devolved Powers: Combined authorities receive devolved powers from the central government. These powers can vary depending on the specific needs and agreements of the region but often include responsibilities for transport, economic development, housing, and skills.

  4. Funding: Combined authorities are funded through a combination of local council contributions, central government grants, and other sources such as business rates and investment funds. This funding is used to implement the policies and projects agreed upon by the combined authority.

  5. Implementation: The combined authority works to implement its policies and projects, often in collaboration with local businesses, community groups, and other stakeholders. This can involve large-scale infrastructure projects, economic development initiatives, and improvements to public services.

Examples of Combined Authorities

There are currently several combined authorities in England, each with its own unique set of powers and responsibilities. Some notable examples include:

Challenges and Opportunities

While combined authorities offer many benefits, they also face several challenges. These include:

  • Coordination and Collaboration: Ensuring effective coordination and collaboration between member councils can be challenging, particularly when there are differing priorities and interests.

  • Funding and Resources: Securing adequate funding and resources to implement policies and projects is a common challenge for combined authorities.

  • Public Engagement: Engaging with the public and ensuring that local communities are involved in decision-making processes is crucial for the success of combined authorities.

Despite these challenges, combined authorities present significant opportunities for improving local governance and driving regional development. By working together, councils can achieve more than they could individually, leading to better outcomes for their regions and communities.


Combined authorities represent a significant innovation in local governance in England. By enabling councils to collaborate and take on devolved powers, they offer a more strategic and coordinated approach to regional development, transport, housing, and public services. While they face challenges, the potential benefits of combined authorities make them a valuable tool for improving local governance and driving economic growth.


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